Сравнительный анализ исп. и анг. языков Курсовая с практикой Иностранные языки

Курсовая с практикой на тему Особенности использования прошедшего времени в испанских и английских газетах . The peculiarities of the usage of the past tense in Spanish and English newspapers

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Introduction 4
Chapter 1. The specifics of the past tense in Spanish 6
1.1. Spanish past tense analysis 6
1.2. Spanish past tense forms 7
Chapter 2. The specifics of the implementation of the past tense in English 16
2.1. English past tense 16
2.2. Types of past tense in English 17
Chapter 3. The specifics of the implementation of past tense in the media 23
3.1. Analysis of past tense in the Spanish media 23
3.2. Analysis of the past tense in the English media 30
Conclusion 35
List of references 37





The species-temporal forms of the English verb have always been the focus of attention among foreign and Soviet researchers, and this topic is currently the most debated.
The grammatical categories of the past tense of the Spanish and the English verb are the subject of numerous studies of a general and special nature on the theory of the grammatical structure of the English language. This direction in science is represented by the works of such prominent scientists as Ilish B.A., Barkhudarov L.S., Smirnitsky A.I., Espersen O., Meye A., Ivanova I.P., Korneeva W.A., Kobrin N .A.
The direction of language learning regarding the meaning of words is called semasiology. The name comes from the Greek semasia “signification” (from “sema” — sign and “semantikos” — significant). Since semasiology does not deal with all kinds of linguistic meaning, but only with lexical meaning, it can be considered as a branch of lexicology.
The main objects of a semasiologically study are: the semantic development of words, its causes and classification, the corresponding distinguishing features and types of lexical meaning, the polysemy and the semantic structure of words, the semantic grouping and connections in the vocabulary system, i.e. synonyms, antonyms, terminological systems, etc. The term was first used by Christian Karl Reissig in 1825 in his book Vorlesungen über lateinische Sprachwissenschaft (Lectures on Latin Linguistics). Discipline is most often understood as a branch of lexicology, the study of words, and as a section of semantics, and is more narrowly attributed to a subfield of lexical semantics, although it is sometimes called a synonym for semantics. The meaning of this term is somewhat unclear, because, according to some authors, semasiology merged with semantics in our time, although at the same time this term is still used in the definition of onomasiology [5, p. 58].
The difference between the two terms “semasiology” and “semantics” is as follows: the first term refers only to the lexical meaning of the word, the second — “semantics” is used to cover several different meanings of words and phrases. This is part of semiotics — the study of signs and languages in general, including all kinds of codes, such as military signals, traffic signals, etc. Since this term has a broader meaning, we will use the term “semasiology”. Semiotics consists of three parts — semantics — the study of signs, syntactic — the study of the organization of signs in the process of speech and pragmatics — the study of the use of signs by people [3, p. 47].
The formation of new grammatical categories of the verb and the inclusion of new categorical members in existing categories are one of the most significant events in the history of the English language. The volume of the paradigm of the English and Spanish verb over the period from the beginning of its written history to its modern form has increased several times: a category of the species that was absent in the Old English period appeared. The developments of the category of the species, as well as the formation of the categorical form of the future tense, are the subject of fierce debate both among historians and among theorists of English grammar.
In modern English and Spanish, the species-temporal forms encompass two verb categories — proper of time and type. The category of time among Russian and foreign linguists is not in doubt. They came to a consensus that in English the three main time periods (present, past and future) are expressed by different forms of the verb: simple, long, perfect and perfect-long.
The divergence of opinions existing in modern science on this issue, as well as the accumulation of new facts and new approaches and methods of analysis predetermine the constant need and the possibility of further research, which determines the relevance of this work.
The theme of this work is due to the importance of the issues for linguists. It is important to identify the presence of species characteristics in the English verb.
The purpose of this work is to analyse the grammatical categories of the past tense in English and Spanish.
To achieve this goal, a number of specific tasks were identified:
to collect material for the analysis and generalization of the main provisions on the system of species-time forms of the verb in modern English and Spanish;
To consider the features of functioning in modern English and Spanish of the verb forms of the past tense;
Identify cases confirming the presence of species characteristics in the English and Spanish verb;
With this approach, the object of study is the verb forms bearing the meaning of time and type, and accordingly, the subject of the study are the categories of type and time and the ratio of the species nature of the verb with its grammatical forms.
The solution of the tasks was provided by a set of research methods. They are: theoretical analysis, systematization of the material, linguistic observation, the method of comparative analysis, as well as the analysis of the results of the work. Our chosen research methods meet the object and objectives of the study.
The structure of the work: the work consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion and list of references.

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In modern society, much attention is paid to the development and improvement of the media. Over the past decades, television, radio and the Internet have actively entered our lives, which gravitate towards the accuracy and speed of information transfer. But newspaper publications do not lose their significance in the information world.
A large number of changes that occur in modern society (political, social, social), of course, are reflected in the language of communication.
The press, as one of the media, occupies an important place in the cultural and political life of the country, and, consequently, in human life.
The newspaper serves to cover the events of current social and political life, it allows you to consider a variety of areas of human activity, such as: culture, music, sports, fashion, politics, art and everyday realities of modern life.
Any media represent a special structure of the language, which is in constant development and instantly responds to all changes in the language.
Our topic is devoted to the peculiarities of using verb forms in the language of the Spanish media. Pursuing this topic, we highlighted many cases of inconsistency of verb tenses, as well as the use of newspaper and magazine texts, which was typical for newspaper and magazine texts, in order to express doubt about the report of an event.
Of all parts of speech, the verb is distinguished by linguists as the most complex and most capacious; moreover, it accumulates a huge potential power of expression, since it has wide possibilities for describing life in its development, movement. The term “function” in linguistics is used in several meanings:
1) the purpose, the role of language in human society, 2) the purpose of the role of language units. In the first case, they speak about the functions of the language, in the second — about the functions of language units (phonemes, morphemes, words, sentences). The functions of verbs in the Russian language are diverse. They can name: a specific action (draw, write); movement and movement in space (walking, swimming); physical and mental state (sleep, sadness); activity of the senses (hear, touch); state change (blush, embarrassed), etc.
Verbs of the past tense in the test can carry various functions, including serving as an interphrase phrase, a means of creating expressiveness of narration, expression of irony, and others. From a scientific point of view, it will be productive to analyze the role of the verb in various types of text. It is known that the Russian language has three types of tests: description, reasoning and narration. Of course, the verb plays a significant role in each of these types of text, but we describe in more detail the function of the verb in the narrative text.
The most significant role of the verb as a means of creating a temporary outline of the narrative. A story is a story about an event, told in a time sequence. The process of action itself, that is, the development of the plot, is put forward in first place. Works of this type are dynamic and basically start with the beginning or ending of the incident, which is stated in direct or reverse chronological sequence. Often used in letters and memoirs. Since actions and incidents are reported here, an important role belongs to the past tense verbs and adverbs that indicate the sequence (once, then, finally, etc.) that helps to unfold the narrative. All narrative types of text have a plot (the beginning of a story), a climax (its development), a denouement (the end of an event). Speech saturated with verbs expressively depicts rapidly unfolding events, creates energy and tension of the narrative.
Verb forms have unlimited variations. Their secret is that in speech very often one verb form can be used instead of another, in a figurative meaning. The past tense forms have significant potential for opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of speech. The proportion of past tense verbs in artistic speech is significantly increased, however, it should be noted that in the meaning of the timeless or for the expression of a different temporal meaning — to indicate actions occurring in the present or future tense — they are used extremely rarely.
But the transformation of temporal plans with the use of past tense verbs in a literary text is possible, and with its help a vivid stylistic effect is created. The past tense form in the meaning of future tense is used both for expressing the connotation of obligatory action (I went to look for it in the market, and wait by the phone), and for expressing irony (So she believed!) Entering the verb-predicate gone tense is very animated view into the context of the future allows you to revive the narrative, presenting the expected events as already accomplished: the author, imagine this picture: you forgave him, because you love him. ; or in the context of the present, when the action is evaluated as a fragment of a repeating situation: From the life of an unemployed person: I wanted to sleep — I went to sleep, I wanted to eat — I went to sleep, I wanted a new phone — I went to sleep .. It is also possible to use the past tense in a perfect and imperfect way in the meaning of the future or present with a vivid expression of contemptuous denial or rejection.


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One of the main difficulties in the grammar of the Spanish language is the difference in the use of the past tense (Pretérito) [4, c. 47]. On the one hand, each time is used in strictly defined cases; on the other hand, it is not always obvious which particular case is meant in the sentence. Constant practice is needed to easily distinguish between elapsed time depending on the context.
We offer you all the useful information about the past tense in Spanish: a brief overview of each tense with cases and examples, convenient tables for comparing past tenses and online tests to consolidate the material.
Four past tenses are covered in this article: Pretérito Indefinido, Pretérito Imperfecto, Pretérito Perfecto, Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto. In Spanish, there is another past tense — Pretérito Anterior, but it is used very rarely, so this review article is not mentioned.
So, there are four past tenses in Spanish: Pretérito Indefinido, Pretérito Imperfecto, Pretérito Perfecto, Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto. All of them differ in cases of use, form of education, pointer words. Let’s dwell on these grammatical aspects. The form of past tense formation is considered on the example of the verbs of three conjugations: habl ar (to speak), com er (to eat), viv ir (to live).
In the Russian verb form of the past tense, both perfect and imperfect, several verb tense forms can correspond in Spanish. To understand which one to use, you need to find out from the context which shades of values need to be conveyed in the sentence.
In total, the Spanish language has 5 past tenses of the indicative mood: Pretérito perfecto (a finished elapsed time associated with this), Pretérito indefinido (a finished elapsed time), Pretérito Imperfecto (unfinished past tense), Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto (pluperfect time) and Pretérito anterior de indicativo (past time expressing an action immediately preceding another action in the past). Now, as an example of one sentence, we will consider the differences between these types of times:
1) Pretérito perfecto is used if: the action ended in the past, but has a connection with the present (today, this week, this year, etc.).
The result of this action is shown (lack of result). Example: Ya he comido hoy — I already ate today (completeness of the action, emphasis on the result, connection with the present).
Participio pasado — past participle. It is formed by replacing the endings of the verb –ar with –ado; –er, –ir to –ido (there are a number of verbs, participio pasado for which is formed differently, more about this in the corresponding topic) [3, c. 47].
Words markers for Preterit perfecto : todavía (not yet), hay (there is), esta semana (this week), nunca (never), jamás (never), este mes (this month), este siglo (this century) etc.
2) Pretérito indefinido is used if the action has completed in the past and has no connection with the present moment: If you need to show that the action happened in the past and has already ended, then we choose the time Pretérito indefinido : Comí hace 2 horas. — I ate 2 hours ago. Pretérito indefinido construction: verb stem + endings (1 conjugation: -é –aste –ó –amos –asteis -aron; 2 and 3 conjugations: -í -iste -ío –imos -isteis -ieron) [15].
Words markers for Pretérito indefinido: ayer (yesterday), anteayer (yesterday), pasada semana (last week), pasado día (last day), hace tiempo (long ago) etc.

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